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Application Notes

Since 1986, Kingfisher's research, development and application support engineers have developed extensive experience in best practices for fiber optic installation and maintenance. We hope that by sharing our wealth of knowledge publicly, we can further the growth of our industry. Please enjoy & pass on these notes.

These Fiber Optic Application Notes are optimised for Fiber Optic Testing Users


  1. Decibel dBm Definition
  2. Loss measuring concepts
  3. System margin & Bit Error Rate
  4. Modal distribution
  5. Connector characteristics
  6. ORL & Back Reflection Guide
  7. Transmission system overview
  8. Some Fiberoptic Emitter characteristics
  9. Optoelectric Detector characteristics
  10. Practical Measurement Procedures
    1. Absolute Power Measurement
    2. Measuring Loss
    3. Single Direction Loss
    4. Single-direction Loop-back Loss Using a Source & Meter, or One LTS
    5. Bi-directional Attenuation Using Two Sources & Meters, or Two Simple LTS
    6. Bi-directional Loss & ORL Measurement Using a Pair of Two-way LTS
    7. Coupled Power Ratio Measurement Procedure
    8. KI734x Series ORL Meter Verification Procedure
  11. Locating cable faults
  12. Talk sets
  13. Practical Quality Control for Fiberoptic Measurements
  14. Improving attenuation measurement accuracy
  15. When to use an OTDR or LTS
  16. A Fusion Splicer Primer
  17. How to choose between a Source & Meter, LTS, or Two-Way Instrument
  18. Which loss Measurement wavelengths do I need?
  19. How to chose an optical detector
  20. A PON Testing Strategy
  21. Practical Fiber Optic Loss Measurement Uncertainty
  22. Precision Field Optical Loss Testing
  23. MPO MTP Loss Testing
  24. How far can a VFL go?
  25. Making the Transition from Copper to Fiber LAN Testing